8 January 2024

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

By usamerica_us

Check out our carefully selected list of free VPN tools, based on thorough research.

Did you know that the average person spends about 2 hours and 25 minutes every day on the internet, according to Google? That’s a lot of time spent browsing and visiting different websites, which can make you vulnerable to cyber thieves and hackers. Most people don’t even have protection against these threats.

VPNs are typically affordable, but they can still add to your yearly expenses. Luckily, there are some VPNs available for free. Whether you want to try one out before committing or simply use one without paying, here’s a list of free VPN providers you should consider:

Desktop Mobile Browser Bandwidth
ProtonVPN Windows, Mac, Linux iOS, Android Chrome extension, Firefox add-on Unlimited
Windscribe Windows, Mac, Linux iOS, Android Chrome extension, Firefox add-on, Microsoft Edge add-on 10GB/month
PrivadoVPN Windows, Mac iOS, Android Not specified 10GB/month
AtlasVPN Windows, Mac, Linux iOS, Android Chrome extension, Firefox add-on Not specified
Hotspot Shield Windows, Mac iOS, Android Not specified 500MB/day
TunnelBear Windows, Mac iOS, Android Chrome extension, Firefox add-on 500MB/month
Hide.me Windows, Mac, Linux iOS, Android Not specified 10GB/month
Psiphon Windows, Mac iOS, Android Not specified Unlimited
FinchVPN Browser Not specified Not specified 3GB/month
Zenmate Windows, Mac iOS, Android Chrome extension, Firefox add-on, Microsoft Edge add-on Not specified
SecurityKISS Windows Not specified Not specified 300MB/day
Speedify Windows, Mac, Linux iOS, Android Not specified 2GB/month
Kaspersky Windows, Mac iOS, Android Not specified 200MB/day
Datho Browser Not specified Not specified Not specified
Avira Windows, Mac iOS, Android Not specified 500MB/month

Welcome to PrivadoVPN

I’m excited to share with you the incredible features of PrivadoVPN. I want you to know that your online security and privacy are my top priorities.

With PrivadoVPN, you can browse the internet without worrying about your personal information falling into the wrong hands.

PrivadoVPN keeps your data safe from hackers and snoopers by encrypting it, making it nearly impossible for them to intercept. So, when you’re connected to PrivadoVPN, you can surf the web with peace of mind.

What makes PrivadoVPN unique is that it does not keep any logs of your online activity. We believe in your right to privacy, so we make sure that your browsing history remains private and confidential.

Not only that, but PrivadoVPN also provides you with access to geo-restricted content. If you ever wanted to watch a show or movie that’s only available in a certain country, PrivadoVPN can help you bypass these restrictions and enjoy the content you love.

And don’t worry about complicated setup processes. PrivadoVPN is incredibly easy to use. With just a few clicks, you can connect to our secure servers and start enjoying all the benefits.

So, whether you’re at home, in a coffee shop, or traveling abroad, PrivadoVPN has got you covered. Your data will always be safe and your online experience seamless.

I hope you’re as excited as I am about PrivadoVPN. Start your free trial today and experience the freedom and security that PrivadoVPN provides.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Hey there! Have you heard about PrivadoVPN? It’s a pretty cool tool that helps you keep your online activities private and get around any restrictions on the internet.

When it comes to security, PrivadoVPN has got your back, whether you’re using the free version or the premium one. They offer things like IP masking and point-to-point encryption to keep your data safe. The only catch is that the free version only has 12 servers available worldwide.

If you’re interested, you can use PrivadoVPN on your Windows, macOS, Android, or iOS device. They also provide step-by-step instructions for other devices if you need them.

So, what do we like about PrivadoVPN?
  • It’s safe and secure, so you don’t have to worry about hackers or unwanted eyes.
  • They have a no-logs policy, meaning they don’t keep track of your online activities.
  • They even have a kill switch for extra protection in case your connection drops.
Now, what don’t we like about it?
  • Well, the number of servers is limited, so you might not always have a lot of options to choose from.
  • You’re also limited to 10 GB of data usage per month, so keep an eye on that if you’re a heavy internet user.

Let’s talk about ProtonVPN.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Did you know that some VPNs offer free services, but they actually sell your information to advertising companies? It’s true! They profit off of your device while compromising your privacy. But not ProtonVPN. They don’t do that. Sure, they have a paid version of their service, but here’s the best part: there’s no catch for free users. You can browse the internet safe and worry-free.

Another great thing about ProtonVPN is that they don’t put a limit on your data usage. Unlike most VPNs out there that have daily or monthly caps, ProtonVPN lets you use as much data as you want. That means you won’t have to worry about running out of data in the middle of something important. Talk about a game-changer. But of course, there are a few things to consider. Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of ProtonVPN.

Here’s what we like:
  • They have a strict no-logs policy, which means they don’t keep track of your online activities. Privacy is their top priority.
  • Your connection with ProtonVPN is safe and secure. You can browse the internet with peace of mind, knowing that your data is protected.
  • You can use ProtonVPN as much as you want. There are no limits on data usage. Stream, download, and browse to your heart’s content.
  • ProtonVPN is available not only on desktops but also on mobile devices. You can use it on both Android and iOS, making it convenient no matter what device you’re using.
And here’s what we don’t like:
  • Free users may experience slower internet speeds compared to paid users. It’s a trade-off for the free service, but it’s something to keep in mind.
  • Unfortunately, you can only use your ProtonVPN connection on one device. If you have multiple devices, you’ll have to choose which one you want to protect.

You might find it a tad puzzling, but the places where Windscribe’s servers are situated are quite limited. In fact, there are only three countries the servers are spread across – Japan, the US, and the Netherlands. It may not seem like a whole lot, but these server locations do ensure a certain degree of reliability and stability.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Let me tell you about another really popular VPN. It’s a great tool to keep your privacy intact and access blocked content in your country. Plus, it can even block those pesky ads that interrupt your browsing. It’s available as a handy application and also as a web browser extension for Chrome, Firefox, and Opera.

This VPN is called Windscribe, and it offers you a 10 GB data allowance each month. Now, you might think that’s not a lot, but here’s the cool part: you can use that data just for browsing the internet and save your precious monthly data allowance for other things like video calls. Isn’t that neat? And if you find yourself needing more data, Windscribe has got you covered. They give you extra data for referring friends, tweeting about them, or simply visiting their official Subreddit.

Here’s what makes Windscribe special:
  • It provides a safe and secure connection, so you can browse without worries.
  • You can choose from up to 10 server locations to optimize your browsing experience.
  • With its browser extension, it blocks annoying ads and keeps you safe from malware.
  • Whether you’re on a desktop or a mobile device (Android or iOS), Windscribe has got you covered. It’s available on all major platforms!

I want to talk about this fantastic VPN service called AtlasVPN. It’s really great because it has a built-in firewall for your computer, which helps keep your information safe and secure. With this feature, you can feel confident knowing that your data is protected from any potential threats.

Now, let’s get into what I don’t like about AtlasVPN. First, it has a limitation of 10 GB data usage per month. While this may be enough for some people, it can be a bit restrictive for others who need more data for their online activities. Also, AtlasVPN logs data about our usage and connections, including the amount of data we’ve used and the times we’ve connected. This might make some people uncomfortable, as they value their privacy and want to keep their online activities private.

Overall, AtlasVPN is a solid choice for those looking for a VPN service with a built-in firewall. While it does have some limitations, it still offers a good level of protection and security for your online browsing. Just be aware of the data usage limitation and the logging of your data when considering this VPN service.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Hey there! Want to browse the internet without worrying about threats and privacy? Well, you’re in luck because Atlas VPN has your back. It creates a secure tunnel for your internet traffic and hides your IP address so you can easily get around those pesky geo-restrictions.

Your privacy is a top priority for Atlas VPN. They have a strict no-logs policy, which means they don’t track any of your online activities. Not even the VPN itself or anyone else can see what you’re up to. And if you’re into streaming, Atlas VPN has got you covered. They support popular streaming services and have special servers optimized for high-speed streaming.

Here’s what I like about Atlas VPN:
  • Even the free version has a bunch of great features.
  • Your privacy is protected with a no-logs policy.
  • You can enjoy high-speed streaming with their streaming-optimized servers.
But there are a few things that I don’t like:
  • There’s no browser extension available.
  • The server network is small and limited to the US only.
  • Some features are missing in the desktop version.

Hotspot Shield

When I learned about Hotspot Shield, I couldn’t help but get excited! This incredible software allows you to browse the internet in a safe and secure manner, without worrying about your online privacy. With Hotspot Shield, you can protect your personal information from hackers and other prying eyes.

When I use Hotspot Shield, I feel like I’m in my own little bubble of internet security. It encrypts my connection, so no one can see what I’m doing or steal my sensitive information. It’s like having a virtual bodyguard that keeps me safe from cyber threats.

One of the best things about Hotspot Shield is that it’s super easy to use. You just need to install the software on your device, and with a click of a button, you’re connected to a secure server. The software takes care of all the technical stuff, so you can focus on enjoying a worry-free internet experience.

But that’s not all! Hotspot Shield also offers a bunch of other cool features. For example, it allows you to access content that might be blocked in your country. So if you’re a fan of international TV shows or movies, Hotspot Shield can help you get your fix.

Another great feature is the built-in ad blocker. You know those annoying ads that pop up everywhere? Well, Hotspot Shield blocks them, so you can browse the internet without any distractions. It’s a game-changer!

I can’t stress enough how important it is to protect your online privacy. With Hotspot Shield, you can enjoy a secure and private internet experience. No more worrying about hackers or surveillance. Hotspot Shield has got your back!

So, why wait? Give Hotspot Shield a try and see for yourself how it can transform your internet browsing experience. Your online privacy is worth it!

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

I’m glad to share with you that this VPN takes privacy very seriously. They have a strict “no logs” policy, meaning they don’t keep any records of your personal information. Additionally, they provide military-grade protection, ensuring your anonymity and safeguarding you against viruses and cyber-attacks.

Even better, the free version of this VPN offers a generous daily allowance of 500 MB of data. This is much more compared to other free VPNs out there. Let’s dive into the pros and cons.

What we like about this VPN:

– They have a no-logs policy, taking your privacy seriously.

– You get 500 MB of data per day, which is quite generous.

– It works on desktops and mobile devices (Android and iOS).

What we don’t like about this VPN:

– It is limited to US-based servers, which might be a downside for some users.

– You can only connect one device at a time using this VPN.

– The speed is limited to 2 Mbps.

In conclusion, TunnelBear is a VPN that prioritizes your privacy while providing a decent amount of daily data. However, it has some limitations, such as server location and device connections.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

When it comes to online privacy and accessing global content, TunnelBear is a VPN that’s got you covered. It keeps your data secure while allowing you to surf the internet freely, even if certain content is not available in your country. What makes TunnelBear stand out is its user-friendly features that make accessing and switching between servers a breeze. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of using TunnelBear:

What I like:
  • TunnelBear has a strict no-logs policy, so your online activities are not recorded.
  • You can connect up to 5 devices to the VPN simultaneously.
  • With over 20 server locations, you have plenty of options to choose from.
  • TunnelBear is available for desktops and mobile devices, including Android and iOS.
What I don’t like:
  • The data usage is limited to 500 MB per month, which can be a drawback if you have heavy internet usage.
  • TunnelBear doesn’t work with Netflix, so you won’t be able to stream your favorite shows and movies through the VPN.

Hide.me

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

This is one of the greatest free VPNs you can find nowadays. Even though there are some limitations for free users, the overall service it offers without costing you a penny is really impressive. The folks behind it believe that Internet Privacy is a basic human right and they don’t compromise on logs and security features for free users. However, they do provide additional benefits for premium users. Let me share with you what we like about it:

– They have a no-logs policy, which means they don’t keep track of your online activities.

– You won’t see any ads while using this VPN.

– The internet speed is pretty good.

On the other hand, there are a few things we don’t like about it:

– You can only connect one device to the VPN at a time.

– The data usage for free users is limited to 10 GB per month.

– Free users have access to only 5 servers.

Now, let’s talk about a VPN called Psiphon.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

You know what’s awesome? This cool tool I found! It’s called a circumvention tool, and it uses all these fancy technologies like VPN, SSH, and HTTP Proxy to help you get around pesky restrictions and blocks. So, whether you’re at school, work, or in a country with strict internet rules, you can still access all the videos and content you want. How cool is that?

Here’s the best part: you don’t have to worry about using public wifi anymore. This tool has got your back, so you can browse freely without any worries. It’s all about giving you the freedom you deserve.

Now, it’s important to note that this tool isn’t for privacy or online security. They’re pretty clear about that. So, if you’re looking for something to keep you super safe on the web, you might want to look elsewhere.

Let me tell you what I like about this tool:
  • It works on Windows, iOS, and Android devices, so you can use it on pretty much anything.
  • You get unlimited data usage, so you don’t have to watch your data like a hawk.
  • There are over 20 server locations to choose from, so you have lots of options.
  • No annoying ads or unwanted app permissions. Just straightforward and simple.
But here’s what I don’t like:
  • The average speed is about 2 Mbps, which is on the slower side.
  • It’s not available for macOS, Linux, or routers, so you’re out of luck there.
  • And sorry Netflix lovers, it doesn’t work with Netflix. Bummer, right?

When it comes to VPNs, there are a few important things to keep in mind. First and foremost, make sure that the VPN you choose has a kill switch. This feature ensures that if your VPN connection drops, your internet connection will be cut off completely. It’s a crucial safeguard for protecting your privacy and keeping your online activities secure.

Another key aspect to consider is whether or not the VPN is designed specifically for privacy protection. Some VPNs may offer other features or benefits, but if privacy is your main concern, it’s important to choose a VPN that prioritizes your privacy above all else.

One VPN that you may want to consider is FinchVPN. It’s important to note that while FinchVPN offers a range of features, it does not have a kill switch and may not be the best choice if privacy protection is your main priority. However, it may still be a suitable option for other uses.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

I personally find this VPN pretty useful. It even has a free version that you can take advantage of. With it, you can connect to public WiFi without any worries because it makes sure all your information is encrypted and protected. Plus, it lets you access content that might be restricted in your area. And just like other VPNs, it can also help speed up your internet connection when you’re browsing or surfing.

What I really like:

– It has anti-DPI, so it can get around those pesky security measures that block VPNs.

– You can use it on your computer and mobile devices, whether you have an Android or iOS.

What I’m not so crazy about:

– Sadly, it doesn’t work with Netflix.

– Your data usage is limited to just 3 GB per month.

– It keeps records and logs of your connections.

– Also, the VPN can only be used on one device at a time.

So, that’s my take on Zenmate. It’s definitely got some great features, but it does have a few drawbacks too.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Zenmate is an awesome VPN service that offers a free browser extension for Chrome, Firefox, and edge. If you want to use it on your mobile, you’ll need to upgrade to the premium version. Zenmate uses really strong encryption to keep your IP address hidden and give you access to restricted websites and content. It even works with Netflix and supports torrenting.

Here’s what I like about Zenmate:

– They have a strict no-logs policy, which means they don’t keep track of your online activity.

– You can use Zenmate to unlock Netflix and watch all your favorite shows and movies.

– It has a kill switch feature that protects your privacy by disconnecting you from the internet if the VPN connection drops.

Now, let’s talk about the things I don’t like:

– The free version of Zenmate is only available as a browser extension, so you can’t use it on other devices.

– Some users have reported issues with streaming servers, so the reliability can be hit or miss.

– The speed limit on the free version is capped at 2 Mbps, which may not be fast enough for some activities.

Now, let’s move on to another VPN service called SecurityKISS.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

When it comes to SecurityKISS, the word “KISS” stands for “Keep it smart and simple.” They wanted to create a VPN that is both secure and easy to use. This free VPN not only offers security but also allows you to access blocked websites and content. Your privacy is protected through encrypted connections that hide your identity. Plus, it works on various platforms like Windows, Mac, Android, iOS, Linux, and routers. You can even use it to unblock Netflix and engage in torrenting and downloads.

Here’s what I like about SecurityKISS:
  • No ads to bother you.
  • A strict no-logs policy to protect your privacy.
  • You get 300 MB of data usage per day.
  • Available for both desktop and mobile devices such as Android and iOS.
  • Comes with a built-in firewall for added security.
  • You can use it to access Netflix.

Here’s what I don’t like about SecurityKISS:
  • They do keep session logs.
  • The speed can be inconsistent at times.
  • The encryption and overall security features are outdated.

Hideman VPN

When it comes to browsing the internet, it’s important to protect your privacy and keep your personal information safe. That’s where Hideman VPN comes in. With Hideman VPN, you can browse the internet anonymously and securely.

One of the key features of Hideman VPN is its ability to hide your IP address. Your IP address is a unique identifier that can be used to track your online activities. By hiding your IP address, Hideman VPN helps protect your privacy and keeps your online activities private.

Another great feature of Hideman VPN is its ability to encrypt your internet connection. Encryption is a process that converts your data into a secure code to prevent unauthorized access. By encrypting your internet connection, Hideman VPN ensures that your personal information remains protected from hackers and other malicious individuals.

In addition to protecting your privacy and securing your online activities, Hideman VPN also allows you to access blocked websites and bypass censorship. Whether you’re looking to access geo-restricted content or simply want to browse the internet freely, Hideman VPN can help you do just that.

With Hideman VPN, you can choose from a wide range of server locations to connect to. This allows you to easily bypass geographical restrictions and access content from around the world. Whether you’re traveling abroad or simply want to watch your favorite TV shows from a different country, Hideman VPN has got you covered.

Overall, Hideman VPN is a powerful tool that can help protect your privacy, secure your online activities, and bypass censorship. So why wait? Start using Hideman VPN today and enjoy a safer and more unrestricted internet browsing experience.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

I recently came across a VPN that offers some pretty nifty free features, just like other VPNs out there. It’s compatible with all major platforms, including desktop, Android, iOS, and even comes in the form of a browser extension. This VPN is all about keeping you safe and secure online by using strong encryption to hide your identity. With it, you can browse any website without worrying about being tracked or facing content limitations. However, it’s worth noting that the free version of this app does come with its limitations. Let’s take a closer look at the pros and cons, shall we?

Let’s start with what I like about this VPN:

– It prioritizes your safety and security, so you can browse the web with peace of mind.

– You can connect up to 4 devices to the VPN at the same time, which is pretty convenient.

– It’s available for both desktop and mobile devices, so you can stay protected no matter what device you use.

Now, onto what I don’t like so much about it:

– The free access is limited to 4 hours per week, which might not be enough for some people.

– It doesn’t have a wide range of servers, and the connection speed can be a bit slow at times.

– If you’re using the free version, your logs will be kept for 14 days, which some users might not feel comfortable with.

Overall, this VPN called Speedify has its pros and cons, just like any other service out there. It’s definitely worth considering if you’re looking for a free VPN that offers decent features and prioritizes your online security. However, keep in mind the limitations of the free version and make sure they align with your needs before making a decision.

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

I love this VPN because it offers a great connection even for free users. It has all the important features like strong security and encrypted online identity to keep you anonymous when browsing any website or platform. Plus, it seamlessly switches between WiFi and mobile data without interrupting your streaming or downloads. Speedify works quietly in the background, encrypting data from all your apps and ensuring that you’re always safe and protected. It’s truly an excellent VPN.

What I like about it:
  • No-logs policy.
  • Fast internet speed.
  • Compatible with Windows, Mac, Android, iOS, and Linux.
  • Over 200 servers to choose from.
What I don’t like about it:
  • Limited to 2 GB of data usage per month.
  • Windows user interface is only optimized for mobile devices.
  • Setting up on other platforms is a breeze.
  • You’ll have access to all your favorite streaming services.

Kaspersky VPN Secure Connection: the key to your online security

15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

Did you know that Kaspersky VPN is considered the fastest VPN worldwide in both 2019 and 2020? It’s true! And even recent tests confirm that Kaspersky VPN offers reliable internet speeds while ensuring your online security and granting access to restricted content. With Kaspersky VPN, you’ll have access to multiple locations across 18 countries, and you can easily download it on Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS.

If you opt for the free version, there are over 200 servers available in more than 37 countries. This means you’ll have plenty of options to choose from!

Here’s what I like about Kaspersky VPN:
  • They have a strict no-logs policy, protecting your privacy.
  • The internet speed is excellent, ensuring a smooth browsing experience.
  • You can connect to Kaspersky VPN on unlimited devices, although the 200 MB data cap is shared between them.
Here’s what I don’t like about Kaspersky VPN:
  • The free version doesn’t have a kill switch to maintain your privacy if the VPN connection drops.
  • Unfortunately, Kaspersky VPN doesn’t work with routers.
  • There is a limited number of servers available for you to choose from.
  • You’ll be restricted to using only 200 MB of data per day with the free version.
  • Concerns about my data being exposed online – Datho VPN-FineVPN

  • Bonus: Datho VPN-FineVPN

    When it comes to the internet, I have some concerns about my personal information being exposed. It’s important to me to keep my data protected and secure. That’s why I rely on Datho VPN-FineVPN.

    With Datho VPN-FineVPN, I can browse the internet with peace of mind, knowing that my online activities are private and my data is encrypted. It’s like having a secure tunnel that keeps my information safe from prying eyes.

    Datho VPN-FineVPN also allows me to access geo-restricted content. Whether it’s streaming my favorite TV shows or accessing websites that are blocked in my country, Datho VPN-FineVPN helps me bypass those restrictions and enjoy online content without limits.

    Setting up Datho VPN-FineVPN is easy and user-friendly. I don’t need to be a tech expert to use it. With just a few clicks, I can connect to a server and start enjoying a secure and unrestricted internet experience.

    When it comes to protecting my data and enjoying online freedom, Datho VPN-FineVPN is my go-to solution. It gives me peace of mind and allows me to explore the internet without worries.

    Try Datho VPN-FineVPN today and experience the benefits of secure browsing and unrestricted access to online content. It’s time to take control of your online privacy and enjoy the internet on your own terms.

    15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

    I was immediately drawn to this VPN because it’s unlike anything I’ve seen before. They’re a non-profit organization that believes everyone should have access to security and privacy online without having to pay for it. They don’t put any limits on speed or traffic, and they even offer their VPN client for free. The only thing they ask for is donations from grateful users.

    What’s great about this VPN is that it functions just like any other VPN out there, but it might even be better. They have servers in 20 different countries, including the US, Canada, England, The Netherlands, Japan, and Norway, to name a few. So no matter where you are, you can connect to a server and protect your online activities.

    Here’s what I really like about it:
    • No-logs policy: Your online activities are not tracked or recorded.
    • Unlimited data usage: You can use the VPN as much as you want without any restrictions.
    But there are a couple of things I don’t like:

      Limitations of VPN Connections

      When it comes to VPNs, there are a couple of limitations you should keep in mind. First, a VPN connection is limited to one device. This means that if you want to protect multiple devices, you’ll need to set up separate VPN connections for each one.

      Secondly, some VPN providers have fewer servers available, which can result in more user traffic and slower speeds. When the number of users exceeds the available server capacity, it can cause congestion and affect the overall performance of the VPN connection.

      Bonus: Avira Phantom VPN

      15 Best Free VPN Providers for 2023

      Hey there! Have you heard of Avira? It’s a really awesome antivirus protection that also comes with a free VPN. What’s so great about it? Well, for starters, it uses super strong encryption to keep your personal information safe and sound.

      Want to know something else cool? Avira’s VPN is P2P compatible and it’s reliable too. Plus, its upload and download speeds are top-notch. And guess what? You can download it for free! How awesome is that? You’ll get all the benefits of a free VPN service.

      Here’s what I like about Avira:
      • You can connect as many devices as you want. No limits!
      • It has something called a “kill switch” that adds an extra layer of protection.
      • Avira has a strict no-logs policy. Your browsing history will stay private.
      • It works on desktops and mobile devices, whether you’re using Android or iOS.
      But, here’s what I don’t like:
      • You’re limited to using only 500 MB of data per month. It’s a bit of a bummer.
      • Avira only has 56 servers in 36 countries. That’s not a lot compared to some other VPNs.

      Now here’s the scoop on VPNs:

      Think of a VPN like a disguise for your IP address. You know, that special code that holds important info like your location and internet service provider? Well, a VPN masks that code and keeps it hidden, so you can browse the web with more privacy and security.